Shade Gardening – The Garden Thyme Podcast

Listen to podcast

Hello Listener,

The summer heat is here, and if you are like us, you are taking a break under the shade of a lovely tree. In this episode, we are talking all about shade — why we love it, some tips for gardening in your shady area ( 10:07 ), and a list of native plants ( 16:35 ) that enjoy the shade as much as Mikaela.

We also have our: 

  • Native Plant of the Month – Northern Maidenhair Fern- Adiantum pedatum  at 30:35
  • Bug of the Month – Eastern Beach tiger beetles at  33:50 
  • Garden Tips of the Month at  39:45

  1. If you have any garden-related questions please email us at UMEGardenPodcast@gmail.com
    or look us up on Facebook at https://www.facebook.com/GardenThymePodcast.
  2. For more information about the University of Maryland Extension and these topics, please check out the UME Home and Garden Information Center website at https://extension.umd.edu/hgic.

The Garden Thyme Podcast is a monthly podcast brought to you by the University of Maryland Extension. Hosts are Mikaela Boley- Senior Agent Associate (Talbot County) for Horticulture, Rachel Rhodes- Agent Associate for Horticulture (Queen Anne’s County), and Emily Zobel- Senior Agent Associate for Agriculture (Dorchester County). Theme Song:  By Jason Inc.

Q&A: What is a good summer-blooming plant that’s deer resistant?

Yellow flowers of St. Johnswort plant
St. Johnswort flowers. Photo: M. Talabac

Q:  What can I use as a summer-blooming shrub, especially if this part of the garden is sunny and somewhat dry? I also sometimes have deer problems.

A:  I think St. Johnsworts (Hypericum) are underused, and several species are native here in Maryland, though those might be harder to source. Some of the commonly-grown forms are non-native hybrids, though well-behaved ecologically. (The only locally invasive species, Hypericum perforatum, is fortunately not likely to be sold at a nursery.)

St. Johnsworts bloom anywhere between June and September, prefer direct sun, generally tolerate drought well, and are distasteful to deer. Blooms are nearly always an intense yellow, and some species or cultivars have colorful summer or autumn foliage. A few cultivars have berry-like seeds that ripen by fall and make good bouquet accents. I love the bark on native Hypericum densiflorum – peeling with a smooth underlayer that’s a rich, warm-toned cinnamon-brown that’s especially showy during dormancy.

You’ll find St. Johnsworts sold as both perennials and shrubs, because some species stay low, sprawl like a groundcover, and have stems that aren’t very woody, occasionally dying back in winter as other perennials do. Other species have woody stems and grow to about three or four feet tall and wide. Flowers are loaded with pollen, but no nectar, so butterflies will probably detour while bees and flower flies (predators we like to keep in the garden) will visit. Don’t deadhead developing seed capsules if you want to support Gray Hairstreak butterfly caterpillars, which can use Hypericum as a host plant (among a huge variety of other plants).

For more plant ideas, visit the Home & Garden Information Center’s pages on Plant Selection and Deer-Resistant Native Plants.

By Miri Talabac, Horticulturist, University of Maryland Extension Home & Garden Information Center. Miri writes the Garden Q&A for The Baltimore Sun. Read more by Miri.


Questions about home gardening? Send them to Ask Extension

Understanding plant tags: light, zones, natives and more

Gardening beginners and pros alike can get flummoxed by plant tag terminology.  What do words such as full-sun, zone, native and determinate mean? Allow me to elucidate, um, explain.  See, even I can make things complicated.

Light is oh-so-important.  Matching the right plant to the right lighting is crucial.  So tags tell you how much light each plant needs to not just survive, but thrive. If a tag says “full sun” that means the plant needs at least 6 hours of sun a day.  If it says “full shade”, that means it wants deep shade.  Part sun or part shade means it can handle a bit of both. 

In trying to find the perfect lighting, remember that buildings, trees, sheds, and other structures cast shade.  So what might be full sun now may be shaded later in the day.  It pays to note where sun and shade fall across the days and seasons.  Visit your gardens at different times to see where you have true full sun, deep shade, and those grey areas in-between.  

Not all plants do well everywhere.  Some prefer heat.  Others prefer cold. So the USDA, the United States Department of Agriculture, came up with a map divided into numbered strips or zones, where particular plants survive an average low temperature.    It’s called the hardiness map.   

Here in Washington County, we are in zone 6B which means that any plant with a hardiness range that includes the number 6 should survive our winters.   For example, a river birch is labeled with a tag that says “zone 4 to 9,” so it will do well here.  A gardenia labeled for zones 8 to 11 will not.   So you enjoy it until the weather gets cold.   

Plant tags help you know which plants will survive and thrive in your gardens.  
Photo credit:  Annette Cormany

You may see the word “native” on a plant tag.  Native plants naturally occur in an area and have been here since European settlers arrived.  They’ve survived hot, dry, cold, and wet years and are tough, naturally resisting drought and disease.  Native plants also co-evolved with native insects and wildlife and support them with better nutrition and habitat. So if you want to help pollinators and other wildlife, native plants are a good choice.  

Look for them.  Ask for them.  That’s how we get more in the marketplace. Learn more about native plants and get some plant suggestions on the HGIC website.

If you’re buying tomatoes, you may have noticed the words “determinate” and “indeterminate” on the tags.  These are tomato types.  Determinate or bush tomatoes max out at 4 feet. They produce their fruit all at once – at a determined time – which makes them great for canning.  They also need less staking.

Indeterminate or vining tomatoes keep growing all season and produce fruit over a longer time so you can enjoy them for slicing, cooking, side dishes, and more.  They need to be staked.  

I hope I’ve simplified some plant tag terms.  No get thee to a garden center and check out some plants! 

By Annette Cormany, Principal Agent Associate and Master Gardener Coordinator, Washington County, University of Maryland Extension. This article was previously published by Herald-Mail Media. Read more by Annette.

This article was previously published by Herald-Mail Media.

What are local ecotype plants and why do they matter to pollinators?

With the planting season upon us, many of us are starting to think about what flowers may be the best for our gardens and pollinators. We may have started to look into floral mixes or even flower starts, but probably there are too many choices and now we’re overwhelmed and don’t know what to do. In previous posts, we talked about the importance of diverse floral choices and how appropriate native species are when choosing plants for pollinators. There is, however, an extra twist that is becoming more mainstream in this story and today I want to talk about it. Let’s chat about local ecotypes, what they are, what they contribute, and how to get them (and how to not get them).

What are local ecotypes?

In a few words, local ecotypes are native plant species that have a genetic background typical for the local region and adapted to it. I know, there were a lot of technical words in that sentence, so let me break it down to make it easier to understand.

Like all organisms, plants have lineages that reflect their ancestry. In the same way that we as humans are genetically more closely related to members of our own family than to those of other families, plant populations are also more closely related to other plants of the same species that live close to them. From a genetic point of view, this means that plants that come from regions close to each other will tend to have more similar genetic characteristics than those from regions far apart from each other. This genetic makeup specific to a given region is what we call broadly a local genotype.

Continue reading

Variety is the spice of life: creating a new garden with native plants

Nothing like starting out a blog with a cliché, right? But this perfectly sums up one reason to change from a monotypic lawn to a mix of native plants. Instead of looking out at a sea of sameness, the diversity of colors, sizes, and shapes of plants offer a more pleasing landscape to view. And, bonus points, more and different kinds of plants attract more and different kinds of butterflies, birds, and beneficial wildlife!

butterfly milkweed with monarch caterpillar
Butterflyweed planted in spring 2020 provides food for Monarch caterpillars later in the summertime.

A do-it-yourself garden is harder but more fulfilling

Once you figure out that you do want more variety of plants instead of lawn in your yard, the real planning begins. But, it can be hard to know where to start – do you just chop up the lawn and start planting? How much will it cost? What’s the maintenance on these plants? What about soil conditions? Don’t worry! There are some really good online tips for beginners. To sum mine up: start small, don’t overthink it, and stick to things you like looking at.

For example, my sister moved into a small house with a fenced backyard. She knew she wanted to avoid the pain of mowing. She knew she wanted low-maintenance, flowering plants. And since she’s a redhead, she knew what colors she liked (hint: little to no red flowers). The first thing we did was start tracking the sun, in both the front and back yards. Each month over the winter, we took a picture in the morning, at noon, and in the evening. We also got started on the paths needed through the garden areas.

Continue reading

Houseplants – The Garden Thyme Podcast

two houseplants on a windowsill

Happy New Year! It is hard to believe that we are already in a new year. We are kicking off our third season by sitting down with Extension Educator Ginny Rosenkranz. Like many of you, during the pandemic our acquisition of houseplants increased exponentially. Ginny guides us on caring for all of our botanical beauties.

We also have our: 

  • Native Plant of the Month, Musclewood, Ironwood (Carpinus caroliniana) at ~24:55
  • Bug of the Month, Ice crawlers or ice bug family Grylloblattidea at ~29:05
  • Garden Tips of the Month at ~31:50

To listen to the podcast visit https://www.buzzsprout.com/687509.

podcast sound wave image

We hope you enjoy this month’s episode and tune in next month for more garden tips.

  1. If you have any garden related questions please email us at UMEGardenPodcast@gmail.com
    or look us up on Facebook at https://www.facebook.com/GardenThymePodcast.
  2. For more information about University of Maryland Extension and these topics, please check out the UME Home and Garden Information Center website at https://extension.umd.edu/hgic.

The Garden Thyme Podcast is a monthly podcast brought to you by the University of Maryland Extension. Hosts are Mikaela Boley- Senior Agent Associate (Talbot County) for Horticulture, Rachel Rhodes- Agent Associate for Horticulture (Queen Anne’s County), and Emily Zobel- Senior Agent Associate for Agriculture (Dorchester County). Theme Song:  By Jason Inc.

Introducing the king of fall fruits: persimmons!

It’s fall, the air is starting to get crisp, you are walking and you see these strange trees. You are sure that they are trees, yet they have these fruits that look like tomatoes… but they are on a tree. What are those fruits? They look so attractive with that wonderful orange… should you harvest them? Should you eat them? Are they any good? What IS this? In today’s post, I want to (re)introduce you to these plants and their fruits, and hopefully the next time you see them you will have answers to all those questions and will know what to do. 😉

persimmon tree in a yard
In the fall, persimmon trees are recognized for their many orange fruits that look like tomatoes! Photo: P. Tain.

What are these orange fruits?

These fruits are what here in the USA we call persimmons (from the Powhatan word “pichamin”). Persimmons are the fruits of a group of trees that belong to the same family as ebony, and that can be found on a number of continents, including North America. Among all the persimmon species that exist, a number of them are edible, producing fruits in late fall. In the USA, there are two persimmon species that produce edible fruits, and one of them is native to right here in Maryland: the American persimmon (Diospyros virginiana).

Although the wild American persimmon still grows in our forests and was well-known by native Americans, who used its hardwood, consumed the fruits, and introduced them to the European colonists (see some Native American legends involving persimmons here), the American persimmons we see cultivated in orchards come from selected lines. Indeed, varieties of American persimmons have been selected, and many cultivars of American persimmons can be purchased and grown in gardens and orchards to produce fruit. Besides the American persimmon, there are also other species available for purchase, in particular the Oriental persimmon (D. kaki), which is very well-known in Europe.

close-up of an orange persimmon fruit in a tree
The American persimmon tree harbors fruits that turn orange, soft, and tend to fall when they are ripe. Photo: W. Pollard.

Although American and Oriental persimmons are edible both raw and cooked (see here for some recipes), it is important to note that the fruits are very astringent prior to ripening, meaning that they have to be ripe for them to be palatable. The level of ripening is usually shown by the coloration of the fruit (ripe fruits are orange), its softness (ripe fruits become soft to the touch), and their voluntary falling from the tree while not rotten. It is often said that persimmons need to go through a frost in order to ripen. This is in fact not accurate: unripe persimmons will simply rot after a frost; ripe persimmons will not rot after a frost and will in fact start slowly drying out, which will make them become sweeter. This may have led people to assume that frosts actually lead to ripening, while the frost will not help in the ripening of any fruit that was not already ripe at the moment of the frost.

Is it true that I need to plant more than one persimmon tree to have fruits?

The short answer is mostly no. American persimmon trees are what we call dioecious plants. This means that each plant will either harbor female flowers (which will become fruits) or male flowers (which will provide pollen for pollination and will not produce fruits). The first consequence of this is that if one plants or encounters a male plant, it will be impossible to ever harvest fruits from it. The second consequence of this is that a female persimmon flower needs to receive pollen from a male plant in order to produce seeds (and reproduce). In most wild forms of American persimmons, pollination is also required for fruit production.

small yellow flowers on a persimmon tree
American persimmon trees display small and delicate white flowers, which are either female or male. Photo: M. Beziat.

That being said, female plants of most selected cultivars of American persimmons can actually produce fruit without pollination. If they do not receive any pollen, these female flowers will still develop into fruits, which will not harbor any seeds and which will be fully edible. If one were to plant these cultivars in their garden or orchard, fruit production would not be restricted by female flower pollination.

But does that mean persimmons do not need pollinators?

Not really. Wild persimmons still need pollinators to transfer pollen from the male to the female plants. So who are these pollinators? In fact, we know relatively little about wild persimmon pollination. In terms of flowering time, American persimmons flower between May and June, and their flowers are small and white (and cute!). Floral visitors have not been extensively studied, but there is at least one study describing a large variety of wild bees (e.g., sweat bees, bumblebees, leaf cutter bees) visiting their flowers. From this respect, persimmons play a role in sustaining this group of pollinators and will benefit from their pollination services.

immature and adult moths that use persimmon trees for food
Persimmons also support other insects including many lovely moths from our region, such as Luna moths – top – and Regal moths – bottom). Photo: Askalotl, C. McClarren and A. Reagol, M. Clock-Rust.

Although not pollinated by them, persimmons also support other types of insects (and sometimes pollinators): moths! In fact, persimmon leaves are the favorite food of caterpillars of many native moths. In particular, Luna moth and regal moth (besides many others) caterpillars prefer persimmon leaves. It appears then that persimmons do not just feed us with their delicious fruits, but also feed many of these beautiful native moths, allowing for them to maintain their populations in our area!

By Anahí Espíndola, Assistant Professor, Department of Entomology, University of Maryland, College Park. See more posts by Anahí. Anahí also writes an Extension Blog in Spanish! Check it out here, extensionesp.umd.edu, and please share and spread the word to your Spanish-speaking friends and colleagues in Maryland. ¡Bienvenidos a Extensión en Español!