Last year at the Derwood demo garden, we had an awful problem with harlequin bugs (Murgantia histrionica), a pest of the Brassicaceae (cabbage) family. They destroyed our crops of kale, broccoli, radishes, and cabbage, and also attacked the nasturtiums and beans, and completely covered a cleome plant (another favorite host). They were everywhere by the end of the season, and in numbers much to high to continue hand-picking and squashing and drowning, our previous methods of control.
Look at that histrionic species name, by the way – I like to know a bit about the history and nomenclature of the bugs I’m squishing, and it’s especially appropriate I’m writing this entry today, since I’m going to see a commedia dell’arte play tonight, and these bugs are named after the servant character Harlequin in that style of theatre, because of the pattern of his costume and the pattern of their coloration. They’re not much for camouflage!
(Photo courtesy Barbara Knapp.) Isn’t that a great picture? It’s like they were posing, lined up in their different growth stages. The one on the left is fully mature, but the immature ones are similar to the adults, just differently patterned and smaller.
Anyway, what I decided to do this spring was plant a trap crop. The theory of trap cropping is either to entice pests away from the crop you want to eat to another they prefer, or to isolate them early on a crop they like and destroy it (and hopefully them) before planting others they might also eat. I chose the second method, and planted a row of mustard in a spot where they’d been numerous last fall. And… waited. No harlequin bugs in the spring. One set of telltale eggs in June:
(Photo: Katherine Lambert.) We saw our first actual bug in July on the day Jon came to teach our Grow It Eat It class about garden pests – good timing, bug! – but it was a lonely camper, and didn’t have much of a family developing until August.
In retrospect, I think we actually killed off a lot of last year’s bugs by tilling our garden early this spring. The last generation overwinters in the soil, and should emerge when the weather gets warm. Which it took its good time doing this year, of course. Between those factors, I bet the bugs that started laying eggs this summer were newcomers that found our mustard and moved in, not descendants of last year’s bugs. So perhaps a spring trap crop isn’t the best method of control after all – a spring tilling does even better, and a fall tilling might be better yet. It wouldn’t have to be the whole garden, either, just the parts where the bugs congregated in the fall.
But here it was August, and we had a ratty row of mustard with harlequin bugs all over it, and fall planting coming up with lots of yummy brassica plants in store. Here’s what we did: dug up the mustard plants, popped them quickly into big garbage bags, tied them off, then searched the soil for escapee bugs and popped those in a final bag, and threw the whole lot in the trash.
That was last week. Of course when we got there today there were harlequin bugs on the row of radishes behind where the mustard had been. But not very many, and we squished them, and we’ll keep after them and hopefully get them all, because collard and turnip seeds went in today, and broccoli seedlings will follow soon, and more in that family that are magnets for the pests. And it would be very nice to have a harvest this fall!
The other critter we’ve been squishing a lot of recently are squash bug nymphs:
They might be hard to see in the photo (by Nick Smith, patient son whom I drag out to the garden to photograph things) but they are a good example of a bug that unlike the harlequin is different in the juvenile stage from the brown and armored-looking adult. Kind of cute, I think. (Squish!) This is what happens when you don’t get to the eggs in time (they are usually orange-ish and planted in clusters under the leaf, often in the joints of veins where they are hardest to crush).
You can see all these bugs in person (if we haven’t eradicated them) by visiting the garden – any time, but particularly on Saturday, August 29, from 10 am to 1 pm, for our Open House. Google the Agricultural Farm History Park in Derwood for directions. Hope to see you there!
Category: Uncategorized Tags: Author:Erica
This year in the Derwood Demo Garden we planted a 10×10 bed we’re calling the Grow It Eat It Garden. It’s meant to represent a typical home garden with the most usually grown vegetable crops, and our goal is to weigh all the produce that comes out of it and assess a value based on average grocery cost, so the hypothetical homeowner can see how much he/she is saving.
We’ve had fun planting, harvesting and weighing.
Spinach 7 lbs
Snow peas 1 lb
Mixed lettuce 11 lbs
Beets (with greens) 8 lbs
Cucumbers 13.5 lbs
Basil 2.5 lbs
Peppers 1.5 lbs
Tomato 1 lb
Zucchini 1.75 lb
That’s a single tomato and a single zucchini. More to come, we hope! The tomato plants (one Brandywine OTV and one Carnival) look great, and so far so does the zucchini plant (Fordhook), though we are squashing squash bug eggs like crazy and have lost plants in other parts of the garden to borers. Our cucumber plant (Salad Bush) succumbed to wilt after an attack of cucumber beetles. I’ve planted another but it probably won’t get going in time to produce much else this season. We would normally have beans by now but had a little accident getting started and will have a delayed harvest – very soon now. Fall crops go in soon.
As I’ve said before, I think the average homeowner, even a beginner, could do better than we have because of the ability to tend plants daily and replant in a more timely fashion when a crop was finished. And if I was going to do this garden over I’d probably try to stuff more plants in there. We’ve got a big garden to tend aside from this one bed, but if all you’ve got is 100 square feet, might as well make the most of it!
And the total cost savings so far, calculated based on Giant supermarket prices: $153. Cost of getting the garden started not subtracted, but let’s do that at the end of the season!
Of course, there are benefits beyond cost savings to having your own garden: knowing where your food comes from, learning about plants and insects, having fun and getting exercise. I do recommend a scale, though; gives you a sense of satisfaction.
I DECLARE WAR on deer and rabbits!
Deer & rabbits – 4 (number of times I’ve had to replant my beans!)
Ria – 0
About 15 years ago my husband hand turned and tilled a 20’ x 15’ garden bed for me for Mother’s Day. It was the best present ever! Sadly, that garden returned to turf over the next few years as garlic was the only crop the deer and rabbits wouldn’t eat. I grew tomatoes in the bed adjacent to the back of the house until deer found it, too. More than once I looked out of my kitchen window into the very guilty eyes of Deer-zilla.
This year the fever hit again. The Grow It Eat It frenzy proved contagious to me too. I planted 2 Maryland Salad Tables™ and 1 Maryland Salad Box™. Sadly, there was no sunny deer-free place to put them since building a new deck is this summer’s home improvement project. So they look pretty awful in the shade, under the overflowing gutters. Major bummer!
Taking pity on me, my husband comes to the rescue and surprises me by tilling a new garden – 35’ x 15’ – much larger than the last one. But this is the Friday of Memorial Day weekend and we’re leaving for the long weekend. He returns the tiller acknowledging that 10 more feet need to be tilled so there will be enough sun in the actual growing part of the garden.
Um…when do I get to plant the garden? We’ll be out of town most of the next few weekends and we have to solve that nasty little 4-legged varmint problem before we can plant. Then we go on vacation the end of June.
Jon said he’d sell me his electric deer exclusion fence since he was putting up a more substantial fence. Oh, no…with all of the GIEI classes going on, Jon doesn’t have time to put in a new fence after all! Now what? No problem, I’ll take care of the deer thing… I work at the Home and Garden Information Center after all! Hmmm…but I live in Columbia with strict enforcement of covenants. No problem, I’ll just chat it up with my neighbors and promise to share the harvest with them if they don’t rat me out.
My husband’s one request was that I plan everything out before I plant the first plant or purchase and install a fence. No problem. I carefully designed my garden complete with 3 foot mulched walkways around the perimeter and between the twelve 4’ x 6’ plots. Then I researched all of HGIC’s literature and consulted with Jon but I just couldn’t quite figure out this electric fence thing. The kits on-line weren’t exactly right. The local hardware stores each only had some of the equipment. The big box stores didn’t have anything for electric fences. Not as easy as I thought to plan everything in advance.
I had one weekend to act, June 6 – 7; my husband was out of town. I bought mulch and Leafgro from the local hardware store. I lowered the blades of the lawnmower and scalped the remaining 10’ x 35’ area that Neil wanted to til. HGIC was promoting lasagna and no-till gardens and I thought a comparison of methods would be a good thing. I put 3” of mulch over news
paper and/or cardboard on the walkways and 4 bags of Leafgro in each 4’ x 6’ plot without newspaper or cardboard. Nothing planted but it looked pretty good and so far I had honored my husband’s request.
So what kind of posts for this fence? Metal U-posts, fiberglass step-in posts, white or black plastic step-in posts…none of which sound attractive. What do you think? Eventually we chose wood posts for the corners and black plastic step-in posts in between. The white polytape proved too unattractive. Replaced it with polywire, added 3 extra strands at the bottom AND wire fencing inside the polywire. I’ll probably be very sorry I put this in print but since July 19 I haven’t seen any additional deer or rabbit feeding damage.
What are the rest of you doing to keep out deer and rabbits?
I believe that a great addition to a garden is CHICKENS! A few laying hens can form a symbiotic relationship with your garden and family in the following ways.
Vegetables and eggs go together in all kinds of recipes. Try vegetable quiche for breakfast, garden salad with boiled eggs for lunch, and squash & egg frittata for dinner. Nearly all the ingredients for these recipes can come from your garden and layers.
Your table and garden scraps can be recycled through your layers. They miraculously transform most types of vegetable matter into nutrient-dense, flavorful eggs and the litter gathered from underneath the roost and in the chicken run can add fertilizer value to your compost that will end up on your garden.
A garden and layers are a wonderful way to teach your children biology, ecology, economy, and responsibility.
Here are some suggestions to get you started:
1. Check your local ordinances. If chickens are not allowed, then get the ordinances changed like many people across the country.
2. Warm your neighbors to the idea. A few well-kept hens don’t stink. They don’t attract flies. And unlike roosters, their temporary cackling in the morning after they lay an egg can be quite pleasant. Seal the deal by sharing eggs with your neighbors.
3. Do your research. Get on the internet and search “urban chickens”. You will find all the information you need. Or go to http://backyardfarming.blogspot.com/search/label/Chickens for dozens of interesting articles.
4. Be warned, there is a problem in deciding what to do with them when they quit laying eggs after couple of years. Will they be pets or will they be stewed?
Hello from the Derwood Demo Garden in Montgomery County! (Well, not literally from, though sometimes I wish I could just take my laptop and blog on the spot. Hm, wonder if there’s wireless access yet?)
I wanted to introduce you to some of the prettier plants in our garden this year, including my favorite vegetable beauty contest winner, okra. Okra, you say? All right, some of the taller heirloom varieties can get a little spiky and awkward, but even they have the most gorgeous mallow-family flowers, and the dwarf hybrid we’re growing, Little Lucy, is just lovely.
Here’s how our little Edible Beauty bed looked last month:
The purpose of this bed is to demonstrate that veggies can be beautiful. I think this is something many people need to learn, including lots of homeowner’s associations who say “no vegetables in the front yard, please!” We can change minds! Unfortunately the one thing we can’t change is the appetite of deer and rabbits and other critters who say “yum! Veggies in the front yard!” and start snacking – my whole property would be an example of edible landscaping if it wasn’t for my furry friends who like to visit and munch. So you may need to confine the beautiful veggies to the fenced areas, or try working in the ones the critters don’t like. They usually don’t care for the onion family, chives for example:
We just pulled out the gorgeous Bull’s Blood beets as they were ready to eat. Here’s a closeup of the deep red leaf, with a calendula in flower:
The back of the bed is Swiss chard and then climbing Malabar spinach and pole beans. I plan to pull out the lettuce this week (it lasted much longer than expected, since the heat held off) and plant a few Hestia runner beans that do not run but make little clumps. We have traditional runner beans across the way, on the fence behind the tomato bed, looking lovely in bloom:
Beauty is always in the eye of the beholder, but you can work with a more conventional standard of gardening beauty and still have your veggies. Choose plants that stay compact (determinate tomatoes, for example, rather than a sprawling indeterminate variety), think about color of leaf and fruit, be thoughtful about your choice of supports and your mulching technique, use the same design principles you would in installing a flower garden, be vigilant about watering and bug patrol, and consider how to fill gaps made by harvesting. Flowers and herbs are great choices to use in any vegetable garden, because they attract beneficial insects, but they are particularly great in a garden that’s designed on aesthetic principles.
Enjoy your beautiful veggies!
Category: Uncategorized Tags: Author:Dale