I think it is safe to say that it is officially tomato season in Maryland! For people that do not grow their own tomatoes, many visit local farmers markets, roadside stands, or grocery stores to purchase these delicious treats. How are you getting your tomato fix in 2021? Do you have a favorite tomato variety you grow at home?
Soil type and growing conditions such as temperature and amount of available water can influence the taste, sweetness, and texture of a tomato, but there is some background information that can help guide your tomato buying or growing. My family and I grow 10+ different varieties and anywhere between 150-200 tomato plants each year for our small, fresh vegetable business. I want to share some lessons with you that I have learned.
Below are some basic terms to know (for a more detailed explanation of these check out this blog post). I’m going to make some generalizations about the terms when it comes to characteristics that people are looking for in eating qualities:
Variety– there are hundreds of varieties of tomatoes. Each variety has a special characteristic that makes it different from another variety — shape, size, color, taste, etc. Varieties can be open- pollinated, heirloom, or hybrid. These terms relate to how the seeds are produced season after season and are important if you want to save seeds in your garden.
In some situations, especially in greenhouses, growers will utilize bumblebees to ensure that pollination happens; however, cross-pollination is not needed for tomatoes, as they are self-fertile (a complete flower with both male and female parts, so just the motion of the flower opening is usually enough movement for pollination to occur). In nature, wind and rain help tomato pollination to occur. In my high tunnel, we shake our vines every few days.
Open-pollinated plants have been crossed in nature by insects, wind, rain etc., several times and most variability has been lost through natural selection and natural crossing. These often breed “true” to name and characteristics. However, these plants are more likely to produce fruits that have deformities like catfacing.
Heirloom is a special designation of open-pollinated plants that are 50+ years old and often have a fun story that goes along with the name. They may have some variability in size, shape, and color, but are usually pretty standard. Heirlooms/Open-Pollinated varieties are often softer, thinner skinned, get more bruises from handling, and are harder to pick/pull off the vines. My favorite heirloom and story is about the Mortgage Lifter, which was bred in West Virginia by a mechanic that was so successful that he ended up growing plants and selling them to pay for his mortgage in just 6 years.
Hybrid or F1 generation seeds are the result of a specific cross of two parent plants. The hybrids are often bred for a specific outcome such as disease resistance, color, or use. Often these tomatoes are very uniform in shape, size, and color when ripe. Many times hybrid tomatoes are more “sturdy” tomatoes– not as soft and will hold up better on the shelf. Often, the more ripe these tomatoes are, the less thick the skin appears and the sweeter they taste.
In my opinion, if you choose accordingly, every tomato has a perfect use.
For salads, I like a tougher-skinned tomato, so I choose a hybrid. Who wants a tomato that gets all over the other vegetables in the salad? Also, if someone in your family doesn’t like tomatoes, these types are easier to pick out.
Making juice, sauce, salsa, or anything that you want to be thicker– heirlooms, hybrids, or paste tomatoes (sometimes a mixture of all work the best)– any type will work but a longer cooking time may be required to get the correct thickness.
Eating fresh on a sandwich– heirlooms often have the best flavor and texture, but if overly ripe, they tend to be a little mushy. Hybrids will work well, especially if you let them get fully ripe!
Sometimes people use overall shape to categorize tomatoes, but the shape doesn’t always fully describe the tomato.
Beefsteak- is a particular variety name, but many people also use this term to describe a large tomato. Sometimes these varieties have a core that isn’t edible.
Slicing- describes a large tomato often used to cut across and make a nice slice, often important to people that want to eat a fresh tomato sandwich.
Cherry- very small tomato, eating in one bite without cutting.
Pear- small pear-shaped tomato, often eaten whole, much like a cherry.
Grape- similar to a cherry, but usually smaller in size.
Oxheart- tomatoes shaped like a heart that often have a large core that is not usable.
Paste- oval to pear-shaped tomatoes that are meaty with fewer seeds. They tend to have less juice and are preferred for drying, canning, or sauce.
Skin thickness is a very important characteristic!
Hybrids often have tougher or thicker skin, which makes them easier for picking and handling in mass production. If you like to squeeze tomatoes to check for ripeness a thicker skinned variety can be misleading in how tasty or ripe a tomato is.
Knowing the characteristics for each variety can be really helpful in determining ripeness.
For example, we grow several types that are pink when fully ripe. But if we do not mark where these are planted it is easy to leave them on the vine too long and they get overly ripe and then are not marketable. Likewise, if you are shopping for tomatoes and do not realize that there are pink varieties, you could be missing out on a very tasty treat!
Knowledge is power when it comes to choosing the best tomato for your purpose! Please, on behalf of gardeners and fresh vegetable growers everywhere, do not squeeze the tomatoes to test for ripeness! Take a chance and try some different varieties this season and next!
By Ashley Bodkins, Senior Agent Associate and Master Gardener Coordinator, Garrett County, Maryland. See more posts by Ashley.
Loved your post. but wondering where can I find a salsa mix to add to my tomatoes?
Thank you! There are several options for finding dry salsa mixes that you can add to fresh tomatoes. Many grocery stores carry these products in the canning aisle or near where the canning jars, lids, or pectin products are sold. Here in my rural community, even the local feed stores and smaller specialty stores carry these products. Try doing an internet search to help you find them for online purchasing. The mixes really make preserving easy and even offer additional mix products for soup base, pasta sauce, pizza sauce, and pickles! Good luck!
Thanks Ashley. I’ll check my local supermarket.
Sun gold is usually voted best tasting variety over the pond from you. It’s a great tasting cherry. Brads atomic grape is another small tomato. I love the variety Amish paste for cooking and a very rare one called peacevine cherry gets my favourite red cherry. It can be a bit tiny without enough water though.
I’ll check those varieties out! Thanks for the comments!
I love the flavor of the heirloom ‘Cherokee Purple.’ It is notorious for cracking and not an especially abundant producer, but I accept its imperfections and grow a couple of plants anyway because I like the taste.
My greatest hits for disease resistance and good steady production have been F1 ‘Mountain Magic’ (great for salads, snacking) and F1 ‘Big Beef’, a nice beefsteak tomato, perfect for sandwiches. I have had a few too many BLTs this summer!
BLT’s are so easy for a meal and I bet they look so pretty with the Cherokee Purple! Our gardens wouldn’t be complete without these tasty treats.
Sun gold cherry tomato is far and away my favorite to grow.
Ashley, can you comment on how you prevent and manage tomato plant diseases? As the years go by this is increasingly a problem in my garden, even though I start my own seedlings in sterile potting mix, rotate among four beds, and prune for good air circulation. Thanks!
I’m going to have to try these sun gold tomatoes. Thanks for sharing!
As far as disease management, that is a tough one. Try to only water just at the base of the plant and not on the foliage to help prevent splashing/spreading of inoculum. A preventive fungicide(https://hort.extension.wisc.edu/articles/home-garden-fungicides-0/) application can also be helpful. Most products only work if you start applying them before you see any problems and do require an application every 7-10 days depending on rainfall. However, they create a protectant layer on the new foliage each week, so no fungal diseases can infect the growing plants. Always follow all label directions for specific product, which should be labeled for use on tomatoes.
Also, if re-using containers, stakes, plastic mulch etc. each season, some fungal diseases can overwinter on these materials, so soak them in a chlorine (1 part chlorine, 9 parts water) solution to sanitize.
Anything tomatoes – it’s fine 😊
I like Better Boy and Mountain Merit for main season.. 4th of July, nd Early Girl are small early and but prolific. I like larger. This year splitting has been problem with Mortgage lifter. Perhaps due to excess heat and rain?